A bunion, or Hallux Valgus, is a foot deformity characterised by deviation of the bones around the big toe joint of the foot. As a result, there is a large exostosis or bony lump on the inside of the foot and the toe is pointed across towards the smaller toes. It is a common problem, more so in women and has been attributed to tight fitting footwear. This article will cover the basics of bunions, what it is due to, and what treatment is available.
There are many reasons why this deformity occurs such as hereditary factors. Footwear habits. Foot type. Biomechanical factors (pronation). Neuromuscular dysfunction. Ligament Dysfunction (laxity). The most common causative factor is inheriting a foot type from your family that is prone to bunions. Feet that are subjected to pronation also have a higher incidence of attaining HAV deformities. This is a problem that has many causes and more than one may be occurring at the same time.
SymptomsNo matter what stage your bunion is in, you can be in pain. Though bunions take years to develop, you can experience pain at any stage. Some people don?t have bunion pain at all. Pain from a bunion can be severe enough to keep you from walking comfortably in normal shoes. The skin and deeper tissue around the bunion also may become swollen or inflamed.
Your doctor is very likely to be able to diagnose your bunion simply by examining your foot. Even before that, he or she will probably ask about your family and personal medical history and evaluate the types of shoes you wear. You'll be asked about your symptoms, when they started and when they occur. You may also be asked to flex your toe so that your doctor can get an idea of your range of motion. He or she may order x-rays in order to determine the extent of your deformity.
Non Surgical Treatment
Padding with a number of different materials (eg felt) to reduce pressure on the painful prominence of the bunion. Physical therapy can be used to help with the symptoms and improve the range of motion (this is particularly helpful if the pain is coming from inside the joint, rather than from shoe pressure). Manipulation of the joint can be used to help with this (manipulation will never correct the alignment of the joint). Any corns and calluses that are causing symptoms should be treated. The correct fitting of footwear is essential for anyone who is serious about doing something about their bunions and hallux valgus. It may be possible to have your shoes stretched over the area of the bunion to also relieve pressure. Foot orthotics may be useful in helping with the instability about the joint. They may be more helpful if there are other symptoms in the foot as well, as their use in "treating" bunions is controversial. They may play a role in slowing progression and in the prevention of bunions developing again after surgical correction. Exercises can be important in maintaining the mobility of the joint in those with bunions, this is especially important for the arthritic type pains that may be originating from inside the joint and for the prevention of these painful symptoms in the future.
The operation involves removing the enlarged portion of bone. Ligaments and tendons that are too tight around the joint are released. The metatarsal bone in the big toe is then cut and shifted to a normal alignment that also makes the forefoot narrower. The cut bone is held in place with a screw or wire, which is not removed unless it causes problems. The loose, stretched out joint capsule is then tightened completing the soft tissue balance required for your deformity. Both feet can be operated on at the same time, but this does further limit mobility after surgery.
tag : Bunions